One aspect of hydroponics that receives much attention from growers of all abilities is deep water culture aka DWC. Everest quizzes water culture expert, Daniel Wilson from Current Culture H2O, and discovers some great tips on running these productive hydroponic systems.

Of all the hydroponic growing media you can use water is cheap and the easiest to obtain. Water can be filtered, typically with an RO machine, and sterilized with UV or Ozone to create a clean and consistent substrate tailored to your growing requirements. Many hydroponic growers already understand the virtues of using, and more importantly reusing, water in hydroponic systems. So, why not go the whole hog, throw away your rock wool/soil/coco/clay pebbles and use water culture?!
What is Water Culture?

Deep water culture (DWC) – At its essence, a DWC system is made up of a container, lid and net pot. The container holds the nutrient solution (typically 2.5–4 gallons (10–15 liters)) and the lid supports a single plant growing in a net pot. Roots grow out the net pot and into the nutrient solution held in the container below. In the container, an air stone bubbles away to agitate the solution and keep dissolved oxygen levels high—essential in any DWC system. Shallow water culture (SWC) is based on the same principle but, yes you’ve guessed it, uses a lower volume of water.
Single vs. Recirculating

Single stand-alone systems are fairly cheap to buy and even more popular for DIY enthusiasts. Modular DWC systems, in which many containers are connected to a central reservoir, create an active system where the nutrient solution is able to cycle from the reservoir around all the pots, arriving back at the reservoir. Each has inherent issues. Stand-alone systems can be inconvenient to work with, while recirculating systems can spread problematic root diseases very quickly. The key is to operate the chosen water culture system properly, and you’ll be sure to get explosive results. Once you play around with DWC, you’ll most likely wish your system was modular and recirculating.

Q: Ok, lets start with the basics; what types of nutrients and additives work in DWC?

A: In my experience, pure synthetics of the highest solubility tend to work best. Especially formulations with well-balanced mineral ratios as well as being balanced on a molecular level. This tends to translate to a more pH stable nutrient solution that stays viable for longer periods of time.

Q: Where do you stand when it comes to Beneficial Biology in DWC systems?

A: There’s a bit of a fork in the road philosophically when it comes to“bennies” or no “bennies”. In my experiences both tend to work but I lean towards more of a sterile aqueous root zone. It is possible to use a more carbon-based substrate for a plant’s root crown cultivation. It’s this beneficial habitat that could harbor and allow colonization of a plant’s mutualistic organisms. The solution itself has little potential for colonization of anything other than bacteria, which while useful, don’t offer the benefits of fungi’s, which share a more direct relationship with the roots themselves.

Q: Are there any specific pH and EC requirements you recommend?

A: Depending on the nutrient, working with a pH between 5.5–6.5 works fine. If you want to be more specific 6.0–6.3 for veg, and 5.7–5.9 for flower. It’s in these pH ranges that the minerals most needed for the respective plant cycles are most available. With regards to EC, I generally recommend 50–75% of a nutrient manufacturers directed dosage for best results. Remember that lower EC can result in a higher intake of water into a plant’s tissue, which in turn speeds plant metabolism and increases nutrient transport.

Q: How often should growers change-out the nutrient solution? Are there signs they should look out for?

A: Depending on the type of nutrients, a 14–21 day change out schedule is typical. When plants are growing vigorously they can turn the nutrients over several times in that time frame. This is essentially “changing the nutes” by displacement from the top-off reservoir. If the nutes begin to fluctuate in pH or become murky, or if plants begin reducing nutrient usage this is usually a good time to purge the reservoir and mix a fresh batch.

Q: What is the ideal water temperature for DWC systems?

A: We’ve observed that no matter the ambient air temperature, plant roots tend to do best at 62–68°F (17–20°C). Above 72°F (21°C) the solutions dissolved oxygen (DO) holding potential quickly diminishes and below 60°F (16°C) plants tend to slow their metabolism in response to what is perceived as changing seasons. This said, growers could aid in fruit/flower ripening by reducing water temps toward the end of the reproductive cycle. Being able to dial in each zone of the plant (Leaf/Root) specifically often leads to an amplification of plant productivity.

Q: Speaking about DO, what is the best practice for monitoring and maintaining DO levels?

A: Keep nutrients cool and ppm’s at a modest level to ensure good DO saturation. Surface aeration and the implementation of air pumps and diffusers is an easy way to keep the solution agitated and moving. Manual as well as digital meters can be useful for those more meticulous souls. If you go digital buy high end as the budget meters (which still run several hundred dollars) are typically unreliable instruments in a pretty plastic housing.

Q: Can you run through your recommendations for propagating plants destined for DWC?

A: Establishing cuttings with an aeroponic cloner using 1/8th strength nutrients is ideal, preferably under mixed spectrum T-5 lighting. Propagating bare root plants suits DWC best. This offers an easier transition to water culture given there is no wicking substrate (rock wool, Sure To Grow) to hold excess moisture too close to the root crown.

Q: Is there an ideal water level to be maintained in the reservoir?

A: Start with the bare root submersed to the base of the rooted stalk, being sure to not submerse the stem or stalk tissue so as to avoid water logging. If using a wicking substrate, ensure the cube is approx. 1“ above water line; this may necessitate hand watering for a few days before the roots hit the water.

Q: What are the potentialities for plant steering using water level / amount of root zone exposed to the air?

A: With water as their growing media, growers can tailor nutrient solution parameters more specifically. Provoking plant responses such as essential oil production, fruiting and flowering are better manipulated when the substrate can be dialed in. For example, higher exposure of the root zone to atmospheric oxygen can help trigger a plant to increase oil production as a means to conserve water, and can also apply mild root stresses that are often interpreted by the plant as reproductive cues. While higher water levels can cause plants to focus more energy on vegetative production, particularly fan leaves, which in turn speeds transpiration and photosynthetic potential.

Q: Are there any specific pests or pitfalls DWC growers should watch out for?

A: Root diseases no doubt, Pythium, Fusarium, etc. These types of problems are most evident in water culture given the roots high profile, but are also typically found in most hydro methods currently practiced. In our experiences we’ve observed that once the variable causing the problem is removed (warm water, too high an EC, sludging inputs, etc.), it’s completely likely the plants will recover. In other words, root disease is not a death sentence, but a symptom of a problem needing to be addressed.

Q: I have heard from a few DWC growers that veg times can be significantly reduced, is this true?

A: Growers will need to make that call, but when dialed-in there is no faster way to grow plants—hydroponically or otherwise. A well-hydrated plant typically grows more quickly which will inevitably create shorter veg times and still achieve a premeditated harvestable plant size.

Q: Is DWC suitable for longer-term plants, such as donor plants? Commercially DWC is only used for lettuce and short-cycle plants, not for annuals.

A: Water culture is still a relatively new hydroponics method. Though first introduced in the 1930s by professor Gericke at UC Berkley, using water as a primary growth medium is still seen as somewhat impractical by commercial farmers. Due to the need to keep water conditions cool, it’s caused the bottom line to operate large-scale water culture facilities to be cost prohibitive.

Though with the recent improvements in cooling technology and increased efficiencies, I think we are likely to see a move toward water culture as a viable alternative to the current carbon substrate-based approaches presently being used for the growth of annual vegetables.

Especially as farmers discover the reduced volume of fertilizer inputs and the conservation of precious water that are key to water culture’s allure. This is an exciting time for water culture as what has been considered a black art is now emerging as a legitimate means of cultivating a variety of crops.”

If you RO your water, sterilize it with either Hydrogen Peroxide, UV Filter or Ozone and use a high quality “chem salt” style of nutrient that has quality ph buffers added, you system with run well; and if you run something like SM-90 or SNS or even Azamax then Gnats & other nasties are a non issue. I hope this article clears up a few questions about DWC & helps you find out for yourself how easy this form of Hydroponics can be. Just remember this is not dirt, so quit trying to mimic dirt & realize the full benefits of this style of growing. So keep it clean, keep it sterile & watch in amazement.


RSO-Rick Simpson’s Cannabis Oil Recipe(cure for cancer, diabetes, chronic pain, etc.)

RSO-Rick Simpson’s Cannabis Oil Recipe(cure for cancer, diabetes, chronic pain, etc.) (As Requested) With How-To Instructions..
What is RSO? …
RSO = Rick Simpson Oil. RSO is a cannabis plant extract and technique that was reintroduced to the public by Rick Simpson so anyone could easily produce the oil for themselves. According to the directions in Rick’s video “Run from the Cure”, A solvent is used to do a quick wash of the dried bud material melting or extracting the essential plant oils into the solvent. The stripped plant material is then discarded. The solvent is then evaporated off (using a rice cooker or similar heating device) leaving the oil behind. The oil left behind is the RSO. What does RSO do? Our bodies have an endocannabinoid system which is responsible for regulation of many of our bodily functions. Our bodies also have the ability to produce our own cannabinoids, they are called endocannabinoids. In a healthy person everything works fine and the endocannabinoid production is enough to keep us healthy. If you are sick, have been injured, or live in a polluted area, chances are your endocannabinoid system cannot keep up with the demands put on it and needs help. The only way to help ourselves is to supplement our bodies with cannabinoids from somewhere else. Cannabinoids from the Cannabis plant. RSO is a very concentrated form of cannabinoids, that is why so many people experience such great improvements when using RSO. It tops off your ailing cannabinoid system with exactly what is needed to keep your body running like a well oiled machine. What diseases can cannabinoids help? It seems the medical community is seeing the beginnings of being able to study cannabis,it’s properties and health applications again. I hope so. Here are just a few conditions that science has proven cannabinoids are therapeutically active against: Arthritis Cancer Crohn’s Diabetes Fibromyalgia Multiple sclerosis Parkinson’s I’ve made the RSO so how do I take it and how much do I take? The different methods of using RSO have different effects as outlined below. Taking the oil orally and letting it melt in your mouth, not swallowing – Slower acting than smoking, faster than ingesting. Longer relief than smoking. Smoking, Vaping the oil – into the lungs and direct to the bloodstream. Very fast acting, short lived relief, 2-3 hrs approx depending on the strain and strength. Ingesting – 1 to 2 hours before you start to get relief but the effects can last 8 – 10 hrs. Through the gut into the liver where THC gets converted to the more psychoactive 11-hydroxy-THC by the liver. How much to start with? If you are fighting cancer or other life threatening disease Rick Simpson recommends ingesting 60 grams over a 90 day period to start. For non life threatening, start small. I repeat, start small as RSO is a concentrate. Getting your dose correct can be difficult. Different strains, different tolerances, even different batches of oil. What if I take too much? Don’t worry, you can’t die from taking too much, it is impossible because unlike opiates there are no cannabinoid receptors in the part of your brain that are responsible for your automatic baseline functions like making your heart beat, and breathing. So if you do take too much just rest easy and enjoy the ride, there is nothing to worry about. How much is 1 dose? When I make the RSO I draw the finished product up into a 1 ml syringe (btw 1 ml = 1 gram) because it is easy to handle and because the markings on the syringe let me get a repeatable dose. Using a 1 ml syringe I would recommend you start with just 1 lines worth (there are 50 lines on a 1 ml syringe). I know that doesn’t sound like much but you need to establish what your tolerance is. If the 1 line had no effect then try 2 lines. Just remember that if you ingest the RSO it can take a couple of hours to start having effects that you would notice. The process of making RSO: Starting material: I generally work with a pound or more of good grade hemp starting material. You can use just one ounce. An ounce will usually produce 3 or 4 grams of oil. The amount of oil produced per ounce of hemp will vary from strain to strain, but it all has that wonderful healing power. 1 – Place the completely dry starting material in a plastic bucket.
2 – Dampen the material with the solvent you are using. Many solvents can be used. I like to use pure naphtha but it costs $500 for a 45-gallon drum. You can use 99% isopropyl alcohol, which you can find in your local drug stores. Alcohol absorbs more chlorophyll from the plant material than naphtha does. This gives oils made with alcohol a darker colour but does not diminish the potency of the oil to any noticeable degree. Ether, naphtha or butane and many other solvents can produce oils that are amber and transparent. Granted these clear oils do look better but dark oil can be just as potent. If the process is done properly, little or no solvent residue is left in the oil. I have been consuming oils produced using different solvents for eight years with no harmful effects. You will require about two gallons of solvent to strip the THC off one pound of dry starting material. 500 milliliters of solvent should be more than enough to strip the THC from one ounce of hemp starting material.
3 – Crush the plant material using a stick of clean untreated (chemical free) wood or some such device. Even though the starting material has been dampened with the solvent, you will find that the material can be readily crushed.
4 – Add solvent until the starting material is completely covered. Use the stick to work the plant material. As you are doing this, the THC dissolves off the plant material into the solvent.
5 – Continue this process for about 3 minutes.
6 – Pour the solvent-oil mix off the plant material into another bucket. You have just stripped the plant material of about 80% of its THC.
7 – Second wash – again add solvent to the plant material and work it for another 3 minutes to get the other 20%.
8 – Pour this solvent-oil mix into the bucket containing the first mix that was poured off previously.
9 – Discard the twice-washed plant material.
10- Pour the solvent-oil mix through a coffee filter into a clean container.
11- Boil the solvent off. I have found that a rice cooker will do this boil off very nicely. The one I have has two heat settings – high and low – and will hold over a half gallon (2.5 liters) of solvent-oil mix.
12- Add solvent-oil mix to the rice cooker until it is about ¾ full. Make sure you are in a very well ventilated area and set up a fan to carry the solvent fumes away. The fumes are very flammable. Be sure to stay away from red-hot elements, sparks, cigarettes etc. that could ignite the fumes.
13- Plug the rice cooker in and set it on high heat.
14- Continue adding solvent-oil mix as the level in the rice cooker decreases until it is all in the cooker. 15- Add a few drops of water to the solvent-oil mix as the level comes down for the last time. The amount of water added depends on how much starting material you had in the beginning. If I am producing oil from a pound of good bud, I usually add about ten drops of water.
16- When there is about one inch of solvent-oil-water mix left in the cooker, put on your oven mitts, pick the unit up and gently swirl the contents.
17- Continue swirling until the solvent has been evaporated off. The few drops of water help release the solvent residue and protect the oil somewhat from too much heat. When the solvent has been boiled off, the cooker that I use automatically goes to low heat. This avoids any danger of overheating the oil. At no time should the temperature of the oil go over 290F degrees (140 C).
18- Put on your oven mitts and remove the pot containing the oil from the rice cooker.
19- Gently pour the oil into a small stainless steel container.
20- Place this container in a dehydrator or put in on a gentle heating device such as a coffee warmer. It may take a few hours but the water and volatile turpines will be evaporated from the oil. When there is no longer any activity on the surface of the oil the medicine is ready for use.
21- Pour the hot oil into a bottle; or as in the video suck it up into a plastic syringe. Putting the oil in a plastic syringe makes it very easy to dispense the medicine.
Now you have RSO-Cannabis Oil….!!!